Most truck and automotive diesel engines
Main article: Diesel cycle
P-v Diagram for the Ideal Diesel cycle. The cycle follows the numbers 1?4 in clockwise direction.
Most truck and automotive diesel engines use a cycle reminiscent of a four-stroke cycle, but with a compression heating ignition system, rather than needing a separate ignition system. This variation is called the diesel cycle. In the diesel cycle, diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder so that combustion occurs at constant pressure, as the piston moves.
Otto cycle: Otto cycle is the typical cycle for most of the cars internal combustion engines, that work using gasoline as a fuel. Otto cycle is exactly the same one that was described for the four-stroke engine. It consists of the same four major steps: Intake, compression, ignition and exhaust.
PV diagram for Otto cycle On the PV-diagram, 1?2: Intake: suction stroke 2?3: Isentropic Compression stroke 3?4: Heat addition stroke 4?5: Exhaust stroke (Isentropic expansion) 5?2: Heat rejection The distance between points 1?2 is the stroke of the engine. By dividing V2/V1, we get: r, where r is called the compression ratio of the engine.
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Most cars are designed to carry multiple occupants, often with four or five seats. Cars with five seats typically seat two passengers in the front and three in the rear. Full-size cars and large sport utility vehicles can often carry six, seven, or more occupants depending on the arrangement of the seats. In the other hand, sports cars are most often designed with only two seats. The differing needs for passenger capacity and their luggage or cargo space has resulted in the availability of a large variety of body styles to meet individual consumer requirements that include, among others, the sedan/saloon, hatchback, station wagon/estate, and minivan.